Biography of POUSSIN, Nicolas (b. Born in or near the town of Les Andelys in Normandy, Poussin received an education in Latin and letters, but early on he showed an inclination for drawing. Nicolas Poussin naît en 1594 en Normandie. « Cette toile est le plus grand des deux fragments d'une peinture de Poussin. Nicolas Poussin est leur fils unique. In Paris, most likely working at the studio of Nancy-born Georges Lallemant. Courte biographie de Nicolas Poussin : les dates clés • 1594 : Naissance près des Andelys (Normandie, France) • 1624 : Arrivée à Rome, 1ère commande importante pour Saint-Pierre.Le peintre trouve surtout son inspiration dans des sujets poétiques > L’Inspiration du Poète Stricken with illness about 1630, Poussin was nursed back to health by the family of Jacques Dughet, whose daughter, Anne-Marie, he married the same year. The misfortunes of god are once again opposed with the eternal grandeur of nature, which works alone to provide the formal structure of the painting. With Moses saved from the Water, painted in 1651, Poussin succeeds in translating the commotion of the women discovering the child through the contrast of the drapery. He is charged with creating two altarpieces, painting two large allegoric canvases for Richelieu and decorating the Grande Galerie of the Louvre Palace, even though he has become used to small canvases. Nicolas Poussin was a French artist known for his paintings and drawings of Arcadian landscapes and historic narratives. Ses compositions ont influencé après sa mort de nombreux peintres ; mais aussi certains courants du XXe siècle comme le cubisme. Most were never finished, but experimented with different variants of the same theme. 1665 (November) His early sketches attracted the notice of Quentin Varin, who passed some … • 1650-1665 : The landscape is taking a dominant place in his last compositions, where nature takes on a new character: no longer orderly and subject to the laws of reason but wild, invading the painting where man occupies an increasingly negligible space > The Four Seasons – synthesis of his late style, Landscape with Diana and Orion Detail from, The Great Bacchanal With Woman Playing A … A French classical painter, Nicolas Poussin has been an inspiration for countless number of great artists since the 17th century. Vénus et Mercure (1626-27). Following an illness and a wedding, Poussin abandons the large compositions of public orders to concentrate on medium-sized canvases for his group of very prudent collectors > The Empire of Flora, The rape of the Sabine Women, The Manna, 1st set of Seven Sacraments Nicolas Poussin - retrouvez toute l'actualité, nos dossiers et nos émissions sur France Culture, le site de la chaîne des savoirs et de la création. The Four Seasons (painted between 1660 and 1664 for the Duke of Richelieu) constitute the synthesis of his late style: in a setting emphasising the beauty of nature, the theme of the succession of the season merges with that of hours, periods of human life; the biblical narrative combines with classical mythology in a synthesis between Christianity and paganism. His first years there were marked by hardship and misfortune. Nicolas Poussin [pu'sɛ̃] (* 15. Biographie courte de Nicolas Poussin - Nicolas Poussin est un peintre français du XVIIe siècle, grande figure du classicisme. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The French Baroquepainter Quentin Varin came across his work whilst passing through Poussin's town and encouraged him to go into p… Dictionnaire biographique des célébrités et personnages historiques. He later went on to Paris, where he worked under minor artists who painted in a style that combined the Mannerism of the Second School of Fountainbleau with certain aspects of Italian baroque art. Peintre d'histoire, compositions religieuses, mythologiques, à personnages, paysages animés. Dies in Rome, leaving just over 200 paintings (known of at present), a quarter of which are kept in France, primarily at the Louvre Museum, and some 450 drawings, which are mainly to be found at the Louvre Museum and at Windsor Castle. Nicolas Poussin was a famous French painter and draftsman who became a central figure of the Roman and European art in the seventeenth century. Above all the painter finds his inspiration in poetic subjects > The Inspiration of the Poet • 1630-1640 : 1st period in Rome. However, an increasing level of skill in draftsmanship and use of colour in the large number of paintings datable to this period have led to a general consensus among scholars of the progression of his art between 1624 and 1627. We do not know much about Poussin up until his thirties. About 1612 Poussin departed for Paris, where he studied anatomy, perspective, and architecture and worked with the minor masters Georges Lallemand and Ferdinand Elle. Landscapes give new impetus to his creations. Une image plus petite avec putto musicien se trouvait probablement à gauche de ce fragme… Biography. Biography of Nicolas Poussin. The artist executed the majority of his canvases in this intensely idealized style. Here we find the application of his theory of modes: the painting deals with human actions and has to present them in harmony with reason, in a logical and orderly manner, addressing the spirit, not the eye, with each subject demanding its own specific treatment. During this time, he meets his first patron, Italian Giambattista Marino, known in France as the “Cavalier Marin”, poet to Marie de Medici, who commissions him to do a suite of drawings illustrating Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Histoire France, Patrimoine. Nicolas Poussin naît en juin 1594 au hameau de Villers dans l'actuelle commune des Andelys. Author of. Nicolas Poussin was born in the town of Les Andelys in Normandy in June, 1594. Toward the end of his life, Poussin’s art underwent a further transformation as he diversified to depict landscapes and a group of profoundly pantheistic allegorical works that were ultimately concerned with the order and harmony of nature. Though his reputation was eclipsed in the first half of the 18th century, it enjoyed a spectacular revival later that century in the Neoclassical art of Jacques-Louis David and his followers and has remained high ever since. The original family name was Lavallée, a name of French origin. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), one of the greatest French painters, rationally synthesized the diverse tendencies of French and Italian art. Peintre d'histoire, compositions religieuses, mythologiques, à personnages, ou encore de paysages animés. He was schooled in many subjects, including Latin and letters, but showed a talent for drawing (he was apparently scolded by his teachers for doodling in his books). • 1642 : Returns to Rome (he does not leave the city again) Updates? Il suit des études probablement dans une école élémentaire puis dans un c… In terms of religious themes, he now prefers the New Testament and the fundamental subjects of the Gospels – the Holy Family, the crucifixion, the burial – and works with variations surrounding the victory of will on the passions of stoic Roman historians. Poussin turns towards classic allegory and paints the first series of the Seven Sacraments for Cassiano dal Pozzo, which portrays the liturgy of the first Christians and in which the style of this first period in Rome finds completion. Nicolas Poussin was born in Les Andelys on June 15, 1594 and showed a talent for drawing early on. Following a serious illness, he marries Anna Maria Dughet, the daughter of a French chef who cared for him, whose brother, Gaspard Dughet, later becomes his pupil. His earliest works are characterized by a sensuality and colouristic richness indebted to Venetian art, especially to Titian, but by 1633 Poussin had repudiated this overtly seductive style in favour of a more rational and disciplined manner that owed much to the Classicism of Raphael and antiquity. About 1627 Poussin became acquainted with the scholar, antiquarian, and collector Cassiano dal Pozzo, who was destined to become his chief Italian patron and one of his closest friends. A period when, with access to the royal library, he studies the engraved prints of Raphael and Giulio Romano, statuary and antique patterns and the décor of the Second School of Fontainebleau, drawing on stylistic elements. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Poussin’s altarpiece did not meet with critical acclaim, however, and it effectively helped to end his career as a public painter in Rome. Nicolas Poussin : biographie, actualités et … 1612 Nicolas Poussin Biography. The result does not necessarily convince everyone, but he succeeds in forming a real circle of admirers who are faithful clients and follow him for what remains of his life. Nicolas Poussin - Nicolas Poussin - The final years: Poussin continued to paint three or four pictures a year in the 1650s, despite being increasingly ill. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. L’art de Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) est réputé difficile et réservé aux seuls initiés. Poussin’s artistic mastery is really revealed in The Empire of Flora, a complex composition painted 1631. Biographies, portraits, vie et oeuvre des personnages célèbres ou méconnus de France. Nicolas Poussin Biography. Your email address will not be published. L'un des plus grands maîtres classiques de la peinture française, génie européen, comme le rappelle l'exposition Nicolas Poussin de 1994 à Paris, à l'occasion de la célébratio… Destitute, Poussin executed a large number of biblical and mythological paintings in the hope of finding buyers. Nicolas Poussin is a French painter who is generally credited for having pioneered the classic French painting style. His clientele changes; from this point on, he seems to depend on a circle of experts, including Commendatore Cassiano dal Pozzo who is collecting documents illustrating life in ancient Rome and calls on artists to draw various accounts of imperial Rome: classical sculpture, ancient architecture. • 1665 : Dies in Rome. Around 1633-1634, his reputation reaches Paris and his paintings are sent by Barberini to Cardinal Richelieu. Nicolas Poussin was born near the town in Les Andelys in Normandy in 1594. Nicolas Poussin, the greatest French artist of the 17th century, is considered one of the founders of European classicism, a movement in art, based on antique and Renaissance heritage. Vie et oeuvre du peintre Nicolas Poussin. Determining the exact chronology of his works during these years is highly problematic. • 1624 : Arrives in Rome, 1st significant order for Saint-Pierre. Find an in-depth biography, exhibitions, original artworks for sale, the latest news, and sold auction prices. Dans la mythologie romaine, Vénus est la déesse de lamour, de la séduction et de la beauté et Mercure le dieu du commerce, des voyages et le messager des autres dieux. The Landscape with Diana and Orion is an allegory on the origin of clouds. This talent was encouraged by the itinerant painter Quentin Varin, who visited Les Andelys in 1611–12 and became Poussin’s first teacher. Apollo in Love with Daphne, painted in 1664 and incomplete upon his death, summarises the strange traits of his final period: the wildness and grandeur of the inanimate, calm and emotionless nature of the human actors, which come directly from the mind of the artist. He does not leave the Eternal City again. Sometimes painting traditional religious subjects such as The Massacre of the Innocents, above all he finds his inspiration in poetic subjects, acquiring, for example, an original and very classical style in the painting held at the Louvre Museum, The Inspiration of the Poet, and in tragic subjects like Tancred and Erminia. Nicolas Poussin Biography Nicolas Poussin, the greatest French artist of the 17th century, is considered one of the founders of European classicism, a movement in art, based on antique and Renaissance heritage. Having more or less become a recluse, working more to satisfy his need to paint than to please others, his final works reflect internal soul-searching. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Above all the painter finds his inspiration in poetic subjects > The Inspiration of the Poet Poussin was a leading pioneer of the classical French Baroque style. He spent virtually all of his working life in Rome, where he specialized in history paintings—depicting scenes from the Bible, ancient history, and mythology—that are notable for their narrative clarity and dramatic force. Omissions? Towards 1645, the painter begins to take an interest in landscapes, preserving the mathematical order of The Holy Family on the Steps and applying it to nature, with the whole thing being artfully organised thanks to buildings that geographically organise the space. In the spring of 1624 Poussin arrived in Rome, where—except for a stay in Paris during 1640–42—he was to remain for the rest of his life. See available paintings, works on paper, and prints and multiples for sale and learn about the artist. The calmness is accentuated to the extreme; the expression of faces is reduced to a minimum. In their emotional intensity these pictures reveal an ardent Romanticism in the young Poussin that he would soon suppress. Inspired by comparable compositions on ancient sarcophagi, this is the first heroic deathbed scene in the artist’s career—and in the entire history of painting—and it spawned countless later imitations. Corrections? 1637 • 1642-1650 : The most fruitful period of his career, creating the most perfect expressions of French classicism, where he seeks the concentration of effects rather than their richness by limiting vocabulary as much as possible > 2d version of The Arcadian Shepherds, 2d set of Seven Sacraments, Eliezer and Rebecca… Many of these works depict the Holy Family, a purely contemplative theme ideally suited to the serenity of his art during that phase. He spent his working life in Rome, except for a brief period when he served as First Painter to the King in France. He also comes back to mythological accounts, but from a different perspective: he wishes to express a truth, evoking the major eternal forces. Choosing subjects which allow him to stage large historic scenes, notably from the Old Testament, he balances his compositions more, i.e. The painting was discovered in a small church in the town of Sterrebeek outside Brussels and restored. He was the child of a noble family who had fallen on hard times. Nicolas Poussin, (born June 1594, Les Andelys, Normandy [France]—died November 19, 1665, Rome, Papal States [Italy]), French painter and draftsman who founded the French Classical tradition. MAIN A-Z INDEX - A-Z of ARTISTS. Many of these works are poetic mythologies on themes of unrequited love, which are pervaded by an air of languor and melancholy. Nicolas Poussin, né le 15 juin 1594 et mort le 19 novembre 1665, est un peintre français du XVIIe siècle, représentant de la peinture française classique. Another early friend and biographer, André Félibien, reported that "He was busy without cease filling his sketchbooks with an infinite number of different figures which only his imagination could produce." Soon after his arrival, his early champion, Marino, moved from Rome to Naples, where he died in 1625. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665): Biography of Classical Baroque Painter, Noted for Allegorical Paintings like Rape of the Sabine Women (Louvre) Nicolas Poussin Biography of French Classical Baroque Painter. His work is a salient example of lucid control by the mind over the senses. His family was essentially impoverished nobility: his father, Jean Poussin, was a nobleman who served in the Tavanes regiment under Kings Charles IX, Henry III, and Henry IV. Nicolas Poussin, né au hameau de Villers, commune des Andelys, en juin 1594, mort à Rome le 19 novembre 1665, est un peintre français du XVII e siècle, représentant majeur du classicisme pictural. Falling victim to intrigues on the part of Parisian painters, including Simon Vouet, he decides to return to Rome in September 1642. He works at his own pace for this small base of clients, taking time to prepare each of his compositions meticulously. Anthony Blunt, Art et Architecture en France, 1500-1700, Editions Macula, 2000, Your email address will not be published. Huile sur toile, 80 × 87,5 cm, Dulwich Picture Gallery, Londres. Poussin served his apprenticeship in Rome by making copies after antiquity and the masters of the Renaissance and by studying the works of the Classicizing artists of his own day, including the Bolognese painter Domenichino. Nicolas Poussin was born near the town in Les Andelys in Normandy in 1594. Biographie, portrait pour connaître la vie, naissance et mort d'un personnage historique, de notre histoire, célèbre ou méconnu. Arrives in Rome, after having spent several months in Venice. 1642 1633 Among these is Paul Freart de Chantelou, secretary to Sublet de Noyers, with whom he maintains extensive correspondence, which provides a wealth of information on his existence, his ideas and his way of working throughout the coming years. Having worked pretty much all of his life in Rome, Poussin is renowned for his paintings that depicted mythology and ancient history. One year later, Pozzo assisted him in securing the commission for The Martyrdom of St. Erasmus, an altarpiece for St. Peter’s. The fruits of these studies are apparent in his first great masterpiece, The Death of Germanicus (1627), painted for Cardinal Francesco Barberini. Nicolas Poussin's early biographer was his friend Giovanni Pietro Bellori, who relates that Poussin was born near Les Andelys in Normandy and that he received an education that included some Latin, which would stand him in good stead. He creates a new genre, the “ideal landscape”, recomposed in the studio, where we find the idea of an intimate liaison between nature and man, put in its place at the centre of a majestic setting – a derivative of his neo-stoicism.
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